If we remember that the percentage of the American national revenue destined for military purposes was less than 1 per cent in 1929 and that before 1913 the 4 per cent reached by Germany on the eve of the war represented an unprecedented maximum, we will understand the significance of the per centages maintained after 1945.
By relying increasingly on the crutch provided by armaments production and finding in the military outlet a stimulus for its growth, capitalism continues to survive. Thus throughout the period of reconstruction, we find the capitalists using the same medicine as that which has maintained the system since 1914. The state's skill in utilising these remedies has evolved; armaments production has permitted the state to intervene in the economy with greater intensity and effectiveness. But the content of these ‘remedies' remains the same, because the nature of the disease has not changed either: the irreversible shrinking of the system's field of expansion; the permanent threat of the falling rate of profit; the heightened competition among the different factions of world capital; the inexorable exacerbation of class antagonisms; the incomplete utilisation of capital; and the instability of the means of exchange.All these economic symptoms which emerged with World War I and developed during the crisis of 1929-38 remained and were constantly aggravated in subsequent periods. The period of post-World War 2 capitalism is only a moment in the unfolding of a cycle which has characterised the general life of the system since 1914, namely: crisis-war-reconstruction.Reconstruction is that least catastrophic moment of the cycle in which capital can best hide its senility. The second period of reconstruction following World War 2 was longer, more spectacular and came after a wave of destruction that was more intense than World War I. Capitalism developed a more refined means of survival. The prosperity of this period was sufficient, at least in the developed countries, to make one momentarily forget what had happened to capitalism since the first war. But as soon as this relative prosperity was threatened, the old wounds of decadence resurfaced more gaping than ever.The period of reconstruction following World War 2 is the logical continuation of the decline which preceded it. It is far from a revival of the ascendant phase of capitalism. The principal economic manifestation of this period naturally appears at the level of the development of the productive forces.
 Claude, p.70
 League of Nations, ‘Apercu General Du Commerce Mondial' 1938, cited by Henri Claude, p.30
 Claude, p.24
 Sternberg, p.494
 For example, in 1962 American military expenditure in planes, missiles, electronic and telecommunications equipment accounted for 75 per cent of the total military expenses of the country. Ships, artillery, vehicles and related equipment which were once the mainstay of the armed forces, made up the remaining 25 per cent.
*sv¼v is the definition of the rate of exploitation (or the rate of surplus value).
 Claude, p.61
 In 1945, there was so much progress in capital concentration in the United States that it has been estimated (Fritz Sternberg) that the 250 largest enterprises produced the equivalent of what some 75,000 industries produced before the conflict.
 Speech of May 28, 1941
 9,480,000 unemployed in 1939, 670,000 in 1944, 3,395,000 in 1949 (President's Economic Report, 1950)
 United Nations, 26th Session of the General Assembly, United States response to the UN questionnaire on ‘The Economic and Social Consequences of the Arms Race...' 1972, p.48